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《平等、參與、共享:新中國殘疾人權益保障70年》白皮書(8)(中英對照)

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VII. Creating an Accessible Environment and Enabling Mobility

七、無障礙環境建設與個人行動能力
China attaches importance to creating an accessible environment and supplying and adapting assistive devices and tools. It has improved relevant laws, regulations and standards, and increased support in this regard.
中國重視無障礙環境建設與輔助器具供應和適配服務,逐步完善相關法律法規和標準,不斷加大支持力度。
A system of standards for creating an accessible environment has taken shape. After the "Design Standards of Urban Roads and Buildings for the Convenience of Persons with Disabilities (Trial)" came into effect in 1989, China has formulated the "Codes for Accessibility Design", the "Construction Acceptance and Maintenance Standards of the Barrier-free Facilities" and other national standards, and issued the "Accessibility Design Guide for Urban Public Transport Facilities" and the "Public Information Graphical Symbols for Use on Sign – Part 9: Symbols for Accessible Facilities". The administrative departments of civil aviation, rail, industry and information technology, education, and banking have drawn up construction codes for accessibility facilities in passenger terminals of civil airports, passenger railway stations, websites, telecommunications terminal devices, special education schools, and banks. In 2012, the State Council issued the Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment.Since the 18th CPC National Congress, legislation on creating an accessible environment has been intensified and the number of relevant laws, regulations, policies and measures has seen an obvious increase. By 2018, 475 rules and regulations on creating and managing an accessible environment had been made by authorities of provinces, prefectures (cities) and counties.
無障礙環境建設形成規范體系。自1989年《方便殘疾人使用的城市道路和建筑物設計規范(試行)》頒布實施以來,中國相繼制定了《無障礙設計規范》《無障礙設施施工驗收及維護規范》等國家標準;發布實施《城市公共交通設施無障礙設計指南》《標志用公共信息圖形符號第9部分:無障礙設施符號》等國家標準。國家民航、鐵路、工業和信息化、教育、銀行等主管部門分別制定實施了民用機場旅客航站區、鐵路旅客車站、網站及通信終端設備、特殊教育學校、銀行等行業無障礙建設標準規范。2012年,國務院頒布《無障礙環境建設條例》。中共十八大以來,無障礙環境建設立法進一步加強,法律法規和政策措施呈現明顯增長的態勢。截至2018年,全國省、地(市)、縣共制定無障礙環境與管理的法規、規章等規范性文件475部。
Creating an accessible environment has been expanded from pilot cities to the whole country in an orderly manner. During the 10th Five-year Plan period (2001-2005), 12 cities were selected as demonstration cities for creating an accessible environment. This was expanded to 100 cities during the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010). During the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), 50 cities and counties were cited as models in building an accessible environment and 143 cities or counties were selected as models in innovative building of an accessible environment. In February 2015, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Ministry of Civil Affairs, CDPF and some other ministries jointly issued the "Guiding Opinions on Improving Accessibility in Towns and Villages" to extend the campaign to rural areas. More efforts have been made to create more such models. By 2018, all municipalities directly under the central government, cities specifically designated in the state plan, and provincial capitals had started building an accessible environment. A thousand seven hundred and two cities and counties had initiated efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers. Among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 75 percent of entrances, 40 percent of service counters and 30 percent of restrooms have been constructed or upgraded for accessibility. The government has also accelerated the pace of adapting the houses of families with disabled members, and improved almost 3 million of such houses between 2016 and 2018.
城鄉無障礙環境建設由點到面有序推進。“十五”期間,在12個城市開展了創建全國無障礙設施建設示范城市活動;“十一五”期間,創建活動擴展到100個城市;“十二五”期間,50個市縣獲選全國無障礙建設示范市縣,143個市縣獲選全國無障礙建設創建市縣。2015年2月,住房城鄉建設部、民政部、中國殘聯等部門發布了《關于加強村鎮無障礙環境建設的指導意見》,推進無障礙環境建設由城市逐步向農村發展。開展無障礙環境市縣村鎮創建工作。截至2018年,全國所有直轄市、計劃單列市、省會城市都開展了創建全國無障礙建設城市的工作,開展無障礙建設的市、縣達到1702個;全國村(社區)綜合服務設施中已有75%的出入口、40%的服務柜臺、30%的廁所進行了無障礙建設和改造。政府加快了殘疾人家庭無障礙改造進度,2016年至2018年共有298.6萬戶殘疾人家庭得到無障礙改造。
Information accessibility has been improved. China has drawn up national technical standards for information accessibility, and upgraded government and public service websites. The state has issued a series of national and industrial standards for persons with disabilities to use information communications equipment, to obtain online information, and to operate assistive devices, which has further completed China's system of standards in this field. China has also made efforts to enable persons with disabilities to access information on government websites. By 2018, over 500 government departments had built accessible public service platforms, and more than 30,000 websites on government affairs and public service on had removed barriers for persons with disabilities.
信息無障礙建設步伐加快。制定關于信息無障礙的國家技術標準,推動政務和公共服務網站的信息無障礙建設。加強信息無障礙標準體系建設,發布多個國家及行業標準,為殘疾人便利使用信息通信設備、獲取互聯網信息、操縱輔助裝置等提供有效標準支撐。推進中國政務網站信息無障礙建設。截至2018年,500多家政府單位完成了信息無障礙公共服務平臺建設,3萬多個政務和公共服務網站實現了無障礙服務。
The state is obligated to standardize and promote sign language and Braille. The "Outline of the Long and Medium-term Reform and Development Plan of Spoken and Written Languages of China (2012-2020)" and the "National Reform Plan of Spoken and Written Languages During the 13th Five-year Plan Period (2016-2020)" both include sign language and Braille in the overall plan. The "Lexicon of Common Expressions in Chinese National Sign Language" and the "Chinese Common Braille Scheme" were issued and came into effect in 2018. Important meetings such as the NPC plenary sessions have sign language interpretation in live broadcast, and China Media Group and some local television stations provide sign language interpretation for some important programs. In 2018, provincial and prefectural/city television stations ran 295 sign language programs, and radio stations broadcast 230 programs for persons with disabilities; and public libraries at provincial, prefectural/city and county levels had 1,124 Braille and audio rooms.
將手語和盲文的規范化和推廣作為國家義務,《國家中長期語言文字事業改革和發展規劃綱要(2012-2020年)》和《國家語言文字事業改革“十三五”發展規劃》將手語和盲文納入國家語言文字工作總體規劃。2018年,《國家通用手語常用詞表》和《國家通用盲文方案》正式頒布實施。全國人民代表大會等重大會議的直播加配手語播報,中央廣電總臺和部分地方電視臺在重要節目中加配手語播報服務。截至2018年,全國省、地市級電視臺共開設電視手語欄目295個,廣播電臺共開設殘疾人專題廣播節目230個,省、地(市)、縣三級公共圖書館共設立盲文及盲文有聲讀物閱覽室1124個。
China offers preferential policies or subsidies to persons with disabilities to enable them to access information. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the CDPF jointly issued the "Guiding Opinions on Supporting the Information Consumption by People with Visual, Hearing or Speech Impairments", which encourages telecommunications service providers to offer preferential plans to these specific groups, and guides large internet companies to provide convenience for these people in such domains as skills training, operations management, and information sharing, to facilitate their participation in internet-related businesses. Internet companies also make efforts to improve their online shopping experience, to share information accessibility technologies, and to give vocational skill training.
對殘疾人信息消費給予優惠或補貼。中國殘聯、工業和信息化部發布《關于支持視力、聽力、言語殘疾人信息消費的指導意見》,鼓勵基礎電信企業推出面向特定人群的資費優惠,引導大型互聯網企業為從事互聯網行業的視力、聽力、言語殘疾人在技能培訓、運營管理、信息共享等方面提供便利。互聯網企業也在提升殘疾人網購體驗、開放信息無障礙技術、開展職業技能培訓等方面提供了一系列服務。
Creating an accessible environment has been promoted in key areas. The 2035 plan for a barrier-free public transport system has been launched. The Ministry of Transport adds accessibility requirements in the design standards of transport facilities such as passenger terminals, expressway service areas, ferry terminals, subway stations, city buses and subway trains. Various localities use more accessible passenger vehicles like low-floor buses and wheelchair accessible taxies, and require reserved seats for the elderly, infirm, sick, and disabled in public transport vehicles. Buses are equipped with telescreens and next-stop announcement systems in most cities, and blind guidance systems in some cities. All public transport facilities are accessible for persons with disabilities in many provinces. The rail administration reserves seats for them on more than 3,400 CRH trains, and permits visually impaired people to board with guide dogs. Financial institutions have upgraded wheelchair ramps and tactile paving,installed number calling and display systems, and set up accessible restrooms and disabled parking spaces. Post offices provide door-to-door services for persons with severe disabilities. Delivery companies send text messages to clients with hearing impairments, and deliver publications in Braille for free. The facilities and services for persons with disabilities to access the legal services have been improved. Accessibility has been upgraded in the reception rooms and judicial tribunals of courts to enable them to enjoy equal legal rights. The courts also promote information accessibility, and allow assistants to those with disabilities to appear in court when necessary.
重點領域無障礙建設積極推進。啟動到2035年交通運輸無障礙出行服務體系建設,交通運輸部在客運樞紐、高速公路服務區、客運碼頭、地鐵站等交通基礎設施以及城市公共汽車電車、地鐵等交通工具的設計使用標準中增加無障礙要求。各地積極推廣應用無障礙化客運車輛,在公共交通工具上設置“老弱病殘”專座,使用低地板公交車和無障礙出租汽車。大部分城市公交車都配備車載屏幕和語音報站系統,部分城市公交車安裝了車載導盲系統。多個省份客運設施無障礙建設率達到100%。鐵路部門為3400余輛動車組列車設置了殘疾人專座,允許盲人攜帶導盲犬乘坐火車。銀行業金融機構改造輪椅坡道和盲道,配置語音叫號系統、叫號顯示屏等設備,設立無障礙衛生間和無障礙停車位。郵政部門為重度殘疾人提供上門服務,快遞行業為聾人客戶提供短信服務,盲人讀物免費寄送。完善訴訟無障礙設施及服務。大力推進法院接待場所、審判場所的無障礙設施建設,方便殘疾人參加訴訟。積極推進信息交流無障礙環境建設,根據案件情況,允許相關輔助、陪護人員陪同殘疾當事人出庭。
Services for supplying and adapting assistive appliances are guaranteed by national policies. In 2016, the State Council formulated "Directives on Accelerating the Development of the Industry of Rehabilitation Assistive Appliances", and the Ministry of Finance, State Taxation Administration and Ministry of Civil Affairs jointly issued the "Notice on the Exemption of Corporate Income Tax from the Enterprises Manufacturing and Assembling the Special Products for Persons with Disabilities" to reduce the cost of such products. Local governments have formulated subsidy measures for assistive appliances and adaption services. In 2018, 3.19 million persons with disabilities benefited from adaption services of such assistive devices as white canes, visual aids and artificial limbs. Programs organized by governments at various levels such as Cheung Kong New Milestone Plan (for artificial limbs) and lottery-subsidized assistive tools have benefited 15 million people since 1996.
輔助器具供應和適配服務獲得政策支持。2016年,國務院制定《關于加快發展康復輔助器具產業的若干意見》,對推進輔助器具產業快速發展作出部署。財政部、稅務總局、民政部聯合發布《關于生產和裝配傷殘人員專門用品企業免征企業所得稅的通知》,免征上述企業的企業所得稅,降低傷殘人員專門用品的生產成本。各地相繼制定輔助器具補貼辦法,對購買輔助器具和提供適配服務給予補貼。2018年,有319.1萬殘疾人獲得盲杖、助視器、假肢等各類輔具適配服務。自1996年以來,各級政府組織實施“長江新里程計劃”假肢服務、彩票公益金輔助器具服務等重點項目,累計為1500萬人次提供了服務。
The personal mobility of persons with disabilities has been improved. The Ministry of Public Security has relaxed the restrictions preventing persons with disabilities from applying for a driving license, and 279,000 people with physical or hearing disabilities have gained licenses. "Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities" require transport providers, airports and airport ground service agents to provide sufficient free mobility assistive facilities to enable eligible disabled persons to embark and disembark. All trains should reserve a certain quota of tickets for persons with disabilities. Visually impaired people can ride city buses for free. China has drawn up national standards for guide dogs. The government has also developed online and telephone taxi reservation services for those with disabilities.
殘疾人個人行動能力得到提升。公安部不斷放寬殘疾人申領駕駛證條件,已有27.9萬肢體、聽力等殘障人員申領駕駛證。《殘疾人航空運輸管理辦法》要求承運人、機場和機場地面服務代理人為具備乘機條件的殘疾人免費提供登機、離機所需要的移動輔助設備。每列火車預留殘疾人旅客專用票額。盲人可以免費乘坐市內公交。制定《導盲犬》國家標準。積極發展網絡、電話預約出租汽車服務,方便殘疾人群體乘車出行。

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sufficient [sə'fiʃənt]

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adj. 足夠的,充分的

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transport [træns'pɔ:t]

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n. 運輸、運輸工具;(常用復數)強烈的情緒(狂喜或狂怒

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license ['laisəns]

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n. 執照,許可證,特許
vt. 允許,特許,

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mobility [məu'biliti]

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n. 可動性,變動性,情感不定

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subsidy ['sʌbsidi]

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n. 補助金,津貼

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organized ['ɔ:gənaiz]

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v. 組織

 
announcement [ə'naunsmənt]

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n. 維護,保持,維修,生活費用
n. 供給,

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technical ['teknikəl]

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