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《平等、參與、共享:新中國殘疾人權益保障70年》白皮書(9)(中英對照)

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VIII. Personal Freedom and Non-Discrimination

八、人身自由與非歧視
China prohibits any forms of disability discrimination. It has drawn up specific measures to protect the right to life and personal freedom of persons with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy equal rights as other citizens.
中國禁止基于殘疾的歧視,制定特別保護措施,保護殘疾人的生命權和人身自由,保障殘疾人平等享有各項公民權利。
Personal rights of persons with disabilities are fully protected by laws. In China, the Criminal Law, General Provisions of the Civil Law, Tort Law, Marriage Law, Law on the Protection of Minors, Labor Contract Law, Mental Health Law, Anti-domestic Violence Law and many other laws define the personal rights of persons with disabilities and stipulate the punishments for maltreating, abandoning, or maliciously injuring them. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities makes full and detailed provisions for their personal rights and defines measures to protect them.
殘疾人人身權利得到法律嚴格保護。《中華人民共和國刑法》《中華人民共和國民法總則》《中華人民共和國侵權責任法》《中華人民共和國婚姻法》《中華人民共和國未成年人保護法》《中華人民共和國勞動合同法》《中華人民共和國精神衛生法》《中華人民共和國反家庭暴力法》等相關法律對殘疾人的人身權利作出相應規定,對虐待、遺棄、故意傷害殘疾人等行為依法予以懲處。《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》全面具體規定了殘疾人人身權利及保障措施。
Efforts have been made to adjust mechanisms for protecting the personal freedom of those with disabilities. The state has abolished the system to shelter and send back vagrants and beggars – including those with disabilities – to their homes, but provides assistance to them in line with their own free choice. The practice of isolating lepers from family or community has been abrogated. The central government has established a nationwide program to subsidize local governments for the management and treatment of serious mental illnesses, so as to register, report and rehabilitate such patients through medical treatment and follow-up.
適時調整相關機制保障殘疾人人身自由。廢除收容遣送制度,對包括殘疾人在內的流浪乞討人員實行自愿救助;廢除對麻風病人實行嚴格隔離的做法,讓患者回歸家庭和社區;實施“中央補助地方嚴重精神障礙管理治療項目”,嚴重精神障礙患者登記報告、救治救助、隨訪服務等已覆蓋全國。
Action has been stepped up against crimes that violate the personal freedom of persons with disabilities. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities forbids any entity or individual to force any person with disability to work by means of violence, threat or illegal restriction of personal freedom. The Amendment VI to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China adds a crime of "organizing any disabled person or any minor to go begging", and the Amendment IX to the Criminal Law adds a clause defining the criminal responsibility borne by anyone with a duty to ward or nurse a disabled person who maltreats the person under his or her guardianship or provides improper care. The Supreme People's Court and the CDPF jointly issued the "Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Trial and Enforcement" and other regulatory documents, requiring stiff punishments in accordance with the law for crimes thatviolate the rights and interests of these people, so as to effectively ensure their safety and protect their property. The Supreme People's Procuratorate and other departments issued the "Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Procuratorial Work", requiring severe punishments in accordance with the law for crimes like forcing persons with intellectual disabilities to labor or trafficking disabled women and children. The Ministry of Public Security launched a special campaign against crimes that force or lure disabled minors to beg or deaf juveniles to commit crimes. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security also initiated a special effort to control illegal employment.
加大對侵犯殘疾人人身自由犯罪的打擊力度。《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》禁止任何單位和個人以暴力、威脅或者非法限制人身自由的手段強迫殘疾人勞動。為切實保障殘疾人人身自由和安全,刑法修正案(六)增加“強迫組織殘疾人、兒童乞討罪”,刑法修正案(九)增加對殘疾人負監護、看護職責的人虐待殘疾人,情節惡劣的,要承擔刑事責任條款。最高人民檢察院等部門發布《關于在檢察工作中切實維護殘疾人合法權益的意見》,要求對強迫智力殘疾人勞動、拐賣殘疾婦女兒童等違法犯罪行為依法從重打擊。公安部開展整治強迫、誘騙未成年殘疾人流浪乞討和強迫、拐騙聾啞青少年違法犯罪行為專項行動。人力資源社會保障部開展整治非法用工專項行動。最高人民法院、中國殘聯聯合發布《關于在審判執行工作中切實維護殘疾人合法權益的意見》等規范性文件,對侵害殘疾人權益的犯罪行為,依法嚴厲懲處,切實保護殘疾人的人身財產安全。
Laws have been enacted to prohibit any forms of disability discrimination. China's laws and regulations contain detailed provisions to combat discrimination and ensure reasonable accommodation. The Employment Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China adopted in 2007 stipulates that an employer recruiting staff must not discriminate persons with disabilities. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities revised in 2008 defines the principle of anti-discrimination: "Discrimination on the basis of disability shall be prohibited. Insult of and disservice to persons with disabilities shall be prohibited. Disparagement of and infringement upon the dignity of persons with disabilities by means of mass media or any other means shall be prohibited." Since 2010, China has enacted the Mental Health Law, Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, and Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities, and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities and Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities, all of which include detailed clauses to combat discrimination.
立法禁止基于殘疾的歧視。法律法規對反歧視和合理便利作出具體規定。2007年制定的《中華人民共和國就業促進法》明確規定,用人單位招用人員,不得歧視殘疾人。2008年修訂的《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》明確了反歧視原則:禁止基于殘疾的歧視,禁止侮辱、侵害殘疾人,禁止通過大眾傳播媒介或者其他方式貶低損害殘疾人人格。2010年以來,制定《中華人民共和國精神衛生法》《殘疾預防和殘疾人康復條例》《殘疾人航空運輸管理辦法》以及修訂《殘疾人教育條例》《殘疾人就業條例》等相關法律法規,增加了不歧視的內容,并對不歧視作出具體規定。

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supreme [sju:'pri:m]

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adj. 最高的,至上的,極度的

 
violate ['vaiəleit]

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vt. 違犯,褻瀆,干擾,侵犯,強奸

 
transport [træns'pɔ:t]

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n. 運輸、運輸工具;(常用復數)強烈的情緒(狂喜或狂怒

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specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明確的,具有特效的
n. 特

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discriminate [di'skrimineit]

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vt. 區分,區別對待
vi. 辨別,差別對待

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assistance [ə'sistəns]

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n. 幫助,援助

 
campaign [kæm'pein]

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n. 運動,活動,戰役,競選運動
v. 從事運

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combat ['kɔmbət]

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n. 爭斗,戰斗
vt. 打斗
vi

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social ['səuʃəl]

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adj. 社會的,社交的
n. 社交聚會

 
violence ['vaiələns]

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n. 暴力,猛烈,強暴,暴行

 
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