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美國根深蒂固的種族歧視問題凸顯美式人權的虛偽(1)(中英對照)

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The Deep-Rooted Racial Discrimination in the US Highlights Its Hypocrisy on Human Rights

美國根深蒂固的種族歧視問題凸顯“美式人權”的虛偽
China Society for Human Rights Studies
中國人權研究會
Jul-19
2019年7月
The United States is a multi-racial country. Its present racial structure and race relations have their historical roots in European colonial expansion and African slave trade, and the influx of immigrants in modern times.
美國是一個多種族國家,歷史上歐洲殖民擴張和非洲奴隸貿易,以及近代以來大量移民人口的不斷進入,形成了當今美國的種族結構和種族關系。
The 2010 census showed that the US had a total population of 308 million. Based on their color, blood lineage, and places of origin, the US administration divides the population into: whites, 72.4 percent of the total population, including 63.7 percent non-Hispanic whites; African Americans, 12.6 percent; Asians, 4.8 percent; native Americans, 1.1 percent; other races, 6.2 percent; and mixed races, 2.9 percent. The non-Hispanic whites are deemed to be the majority racial group in the US, while the other 112 million people including the white Hispanic and Latino Americans are called minorities.
根據2010年人口普查數據,美國總人口約為3.08億。美國官方根據膚色、血統、來源地等對種族進行分類:白人占總人口比例的72.4%,其中非拉美裔白人占總人口比例為63.7%;非洲裔占總人口的比例為12.6%;亞裔占總人口的比例為4.8%;原住民占總人口的比例約為1.1%;其他種族占總人口比例為6.2%;混合種族約占總人口比例的2.9%。非拉美裔白人被視作美國的主體種族,而包含拉美裔白人在內的1.12億其他族裔都被稱為少數種族。
Races are an important marker of US social division of category. Thomas Sowell, a US scholar, writes in his Ethnic America: A History, "Color has obviously played a major role in determining the fate of many Americans..." It is such differences that give rise to a hierarchy formed among different races that defines the status and power of each group. The fundamental control of state power by the European whites, the dominant race, and their systematic discrimination against all other races are the conspicuous feature of the American racial hierarchy. Racial discrimination in the US is in essence the discrimination of the European whites against all other racial minorities. Racial discrimination is the root cause and the supporting mechanism of the American racial hierarchy.
種族是美國重要的社會類別區分。美國學者托馬斯·索維爾在其《美國種族簡史》一書中指出,“膚色在決定美國人的命運方面,顯然具有舉足輕重的作用。”基于這種區分,美國不同種族之間逐步形成了一套在群體地位和群體權力上的層級系統。作為主體種族的歐洲裔白人對國家權力的根本性控制,以及對其他所有種族群體系統性的歧視,是美國種族層級系統的核心特征。美國的種族歧視事實上就是歐洲裔白人對所有其他少數種族的歧視。種族歧視既是這套種族層級系統的形成原因,也是這套種族層級系統的維持機制。
I. Forms of Racial Discrimination in the US
一、美國種族歧視的種種表現
The UN "International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination" requires all state parties to take active measures to prohibit and eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms, and to guarantee the right of everyone to equality before the law, civil rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights without distinction as to race, color, or national or ethnic origin. The United States, a signatory to the Convention, has failed miserably in meeting these requirements. Racial discrimination in the US is found in every aspect of people's lives, particularly in law enforcement, the judiciary, the economy and society.
聯合國《消除一切形式種族歧視國際公約》要求各締約國采取積極行動,禁止并消除一切形式種族歧視,保證人人在法律上一律平等,不分種族、膚色或民族或人種得以平等享受公民權利、政治權利和經濟、社會及文化權利。作為這一國際公約的締約國,美國國內的種族歧視問題與此要求都相去甚遠。美國種族歧視體現在現實生活的方方面面,其中特別突出地體現在執法司法領域、經濟領域、社會領域。
1. Racial discrimination in law enforcement and the judiciary
(一)執法司法領域中的種族歧視
Equality before the law for everyone is a basic principle in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; it is also recognized in America's political philosophy and legal system. In reality, however, many practices of US law enforcement and the judiciary run counter to this principle, with racial discrimination worsening in certain areas and the basic human rights of racial minorities willfully violated.
法律面前人人平等是國際人權憲章的基本原則。雖然美國的政治理念和法律制度也明確承認這一原則,但現實中美國的執法司法實踐卻與之背道而馳,相關領域中的種族歧視現象呈變本加厲之勢,少數種族的基本人權被肆意踐踏。
One of the most visible of these is the frequent shooting and killing of African Americans by the police in acts of abuse of power. In 2014, 18-year-old Michael Brown, who was unarmed and barehanded, was shot by a white police officer six times and killed in Ferguson, Missouri. In 2015, 24-year-old Jamar Clark was shot and killed by police when he was already handcuffed and subdued. US federal government statistics show that young African American males are 21 times more likely to be shot and killed by police than young white males. For African American males between 15 and 19 years old, the chance of getting shot and killed by police is 31.17 per million, while the figure for white males of the same age group stands at 1.47 per million. According to the Mapping Police Violence website, in 2013 at least 301 African Americans were shot and killed by the police; the figures were 320 in 2014, 351 in 2015, 309 in 2016, 282 in 2017, and 260 in 2018. A report on The New York Times website from June 7, 2018 says that by 2017, only one police officer had been sentenced to jail in 15 cases involving the killing of African Americans that had attracted wide public attention.
最為引人關注的是警察濫用職權槍殺非洲裔事件頻繁發生。2014年,美國密蘇里州弗格森鎮手無寸鐵的18歲非洲裔青年邁克爾·布朗遭白人警察6槍射殺。2015年,明尼蘇達州24歲非洲裔男子賈馬爾·克拉克在戴著手銬被制服的情況下被警察開槍殺害。美國聯邦統計數據分析顯示,非洲裔青年男性被警察射殺的風險比白人青年男性高21倍,15歲至19歲的非洲裔男性被射殺率高達百萬分之31.17,而同年齡段的白人男性被射殺率僅為百萬分之1.47。據“警察暴力地圖”網站統計,2013年美國至少有301名非洲裔遭警察槍殺,2014年為320人,2015年為351人,2016年為309人,2017年為282人,2018年為260人。《紐約時報》網站2018年6月7日報道,截至2017年,在輿論廣泛關注的15起警察槍殺非洲裔案件中,只有一名警察被判入獄。
The double standards of US police are very much reflected in the ways that law enforcement handles different ethnic groups. On February 17, 2016 Paul Gaston, an African American who had just crashed his car and was confused about his surroundings, was shot and killed by three police officers in Cincinnati. The police said that Gaston was reaching for a gun that was later proven to be a fake. Just a day earlier, the Cincinnati police chose not to open fire at a white male who had pointed the same kind of fake gun at the police, but instead arrested him without a scratch and charged him with threatening the police. An article on the New York Daily News website commented that the different results of two similar incidents provides clear evidence of the great disparity in police treatment of African Americans and white people, and that double standards on ethnicity do exist in the US. The incidents referred to above are not isolated cases. A report on The Washington Post website from December 6, 2016 says that Edgar Maddison Welch, a 28-year-old white male, entered a restaurant in Northwest Washington with a semiautomatic rifle. Welch surrendered and walked out of the place with his back facing the police, unarmed and with his hands up. Police did not shoot him. In sharp contrast, on September 16, 2016 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Terence Crutcher, an unarmed 40-year-old African American who had his hands up and his back turned to the police, was killed by white police officers who tasered him before shooting him.
警察在面對不同種族時所采取的差異性應對方式體現了執法中的雙重標準。2016年2月17日,非洲裔男子加斯頓在經歷嚴重車禍神志恍惚的狀態下被辛辛那提三名警察開槍擊斃,警方的解釋是他試圖去取腰帶上掛的槍,但事后證明那是一枝假槍。而僅在此前一天,一名白人男子甚至用這種假槍對準辛辛那提的警察,警方卻沒有開槍,毫發無損地將其逮捕后僅以威脅警方的罪名進行起訴。《紐約每日新聞》網站評論稱,這兩個相似事件的不同結果突出表明了警察對待非洲裔和白人態度完全不同,在美國的確存在著種族上的雙重標準。上述事件并非孤例。《華盛頓郵報》網站2016年12月6日報道,28歲的白人韋爾奇攜帶半自動步槍進入華盛頓西北部一家餐廳,之后放下武器從餐廳走出,背向警察雙手舉起,警察沒有開槍。與此形成鮮明對照的是,2016年9月16日,在俄克拉荷馬州塔爾薩市,手無寸鐵的非洲裔男子克拉徹在高舉雙手背向警察的情況下被白人警察開槍擊斃,他在被殺之前還遭遇了警方的電擊。
Law enforcement in the US is rife with racial discrimination. First, African Americans are much more likely to be arrested by police than any other ethnic group. Statistics from 1,581 police stations showed that African Americans were three times more likely to be arrested than people from other ethnic groups; data from at least 70 police stations showed that African Americans were ten times more likely to be arrested than people from other ethnic groups, and some of these stations had arrested 26 times more African Americans.
美國執法領域存在著根深蒂固的種族偏見。首先,非洲裔的被捕率遠高于美國其他種族。全國至少有1581個警察局非洲裔被捕率高于其他種族3倍,超過70個警察局非洲裔被捕率高出其他種族10倍以上,最高的甚至達到26倍之多。
Second, the police are in favor of white people in law enforcement. Data from police departments across the country show that in areas which practice "zero tolerance" in street-level law enforcement, police mainly arrested African Americans from poor neighborhoods while turning a blind eye to similar acts in affluent white neighborhoods. Third, police use entrapment strategies against minority groups. Of all the anti-narcotic operations by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, 91 percent of the suspects detained using entrapment strategies are racial minorities. A report of the American Civil Liberties Union says that Marijuana use is roughly equal among Blacks and Whites, yet Blacks are four times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession.
其次,警察在執法中偏袒白人。全國各地警察部門的數據統計顯示,在實施“零容忍”街頭執法策略地區,警察逮捕的對象主要為貧困社區中的非洲裔,而對富裕白人社區的同樣行為則視而不見。再次,警察還針對少數種族實施圈套執法。在緝毒行動中,美國酒精、煙草、火器和爆炸物管理局使用執法圈套鎖定的犯罪嫌疑人中,91%是少數族裔。美國民權聯盟的報告揭示,非洲裔和白人吸食大麻的比例相當,但是前者因攜帶大麻被捕的可能性是后者的4倍。
Systemic racial discrimination plagues the judiciary of the US. A study by the Public Religion Research Institute shows that 51 percent Americans think that African Americans and other racial minorities suffer from unequal treatment in the criminal justice system, and 78 percent of African Americans think they are victims of unequal treatment of the judiciary. The incarceration rate for African American males is 5.9 times higher than the rate for white males, while the rate for African American females is 2.1 times higher than the rate for white females. African Americans only constitute about 13 percent of the US population, but they account for 36 percent of federal and state prisoners.
美國司法領域中存在系統性的種族歧視。美國公共宗教研究所的調查顯示,51%的美國人認為非洲裔和其他少數族裔在刑事司法體系中與白人相比受到了不平等對待,78%的非洲裔美國人認為他們在刑事司法體系中受到不平等對待。非洲裔男性的被監禁率比白人男性高5.9倍,非洲裔女性的被監禁率比白人女性高2.1倍;非洲裔僅占美國總人口的約13%,卻占聯邦和各州囚犯總數的36%。
The United States Sentencing Commission found that on average the terms for African American males were 19.1 percent longer than those for white males. The National Registry of Exonerations, analyzing relevant cases from 1989 to October 2016, concluded that African Americans are more likely to be wrongfully convicted of murder, sexual assault, and drug-related crimes than white persons. Of the 1,900 defendants in known exoneration cases, 47 percent are African Americans. Annette Gordon-Reed, professor of American Legal History at Harvard University, once said that African Americans are not yet full citizens. Blacks, especially young African Americans, are presumed criminals and in practice they are denied full citizenship.
美國量刑委員會研究發現,針對同樣罪行,非洲裔男性犯人刑期平均比白人男性犯人高出19.1%。全國免罪記錄中心對1989年至2016年10月相關案例分析后得出結論,非洲裔美國人比白人更容易被錯誤判定為犯有謀殺罪、性侵犯、非法毒品活動等罪行。在1900名被宣判有罪但后來被改判無罪的被告人中,47%是非洲裔美國人。美國哈佛大學法學院教授安妮特·戈登說:“非洲裔還不是完全意義上的公民。非洲裔尤其是年輕非洲裔被假定為罪犯,隔離在充分享有公民權的邊界之外。”
The UN is gravely concerned about racial discrimination in law enforcement and the judiciary of the US. In its 2016 report, the Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent of the UN Human Rights Council pointed out that the American government has failed to fulfill its duty of protecting the rights of African Americans, and that continued institutional and structural racism adversely affects African Americans' civil rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights. The report criticized police violence and racial discrimination in the criminal justice system, pointing out that most of such acts go unpunished. According to the report, "Contemporary police killings and the trauma that they create are reminiscent of the past racial terror of lynching. Impunity for state violence has resulted in the current human rights crisis and must be addressed as a matter of urgency." The report also found that the killing of unarmed African Americans by the police is only the tip of the iceberg in what is pervasive racial bias in the judiciary system.
聯合國嚴重關切美國執法司法領域的種族歧視問題。聯合國人權理事會非洲裔問題專家工作組2016年的調查報告指出,美國政府未能履行保護非洲裔權利的責任,制度性和結構性種族主義的持續存在,對非洲裔美國人的公民權利、政治權利和經濟、社會及文化權利造成了負面的影響。報告重點批評了警察暴力以及刑事司法系統中的種族歧視行為,而這些行為大多被免予刑事處罰。“警察槍殺非洲裔及其帶來的心理創傷使人聯想起過去私刑處死的種族恐怖主義行為。對國家暴力行為免予刑罰已經造成了當前的人權危機,必須作為緊急事項予以處理。”報告稱,警察對手無寸鐵的非洲裔的殺戮,只是司法體系中普遍存在的種族偏見的冰山一角。

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