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美國根深蒂固的種族歧視問題凸顯美式人權的虛偽(3)(中英對照)

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II.Social Impact of Racial Discrimination in the US

二、美國種族歧視的社會后果
Racial discrimination has a detrimental social impact in the US. It has led to worsening race relations, growing hate crimes, and increasing societal breakdown.
美國種族歧視問題造成了嚴重的社會后果,它導致種族關系持續惡化,仇恨犯罪不斷增加,社會撕裂日益嚴重。
1. Worsening race relations
(一)種族關系持續惡化
The year 2014 marked the 50th anniversary of the promulgation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. A survey by the Pew Research Center on current US race relations revealed that 45 percent of respondents thought that the US had made progress in racial equality. Statistics released by the Pew Research Center in August 2015 showed that 50 percent of Americans thought that racism was a serious social problem in the US, and 60 percent – 14 percentage points higher than the previous year – thought that the government should make more effort to promote racial equality. A National Broadcasting Company (NBC) poll in 2016 found 77 percent of the US public confirming the existence of racial discrimination against African-Americans, and 52 percent of them calling it a very serious problem. Pewresearch.org reported on February 22, 2018 that in 2017, about eight in ten African Americans (81 percent) said racism is a big problem in society today, an increase of 37 percentage points compared with 2009. NBC News reported on May 29, 2018 that a poll shows that 64 percent of its respondents said racism remains a major problem in American society; 45 percent believed race relations in the US are getting worse; and 30 percent thought race is the biggest source of division in America today.
2014年是美國《民權法案》頒布50周年,皮尤中心對美國種族關系現狀的調查顯示,僅有45%的受訪者認為美國在種族平等方面取得了進步。皮尤中心2015年8月發布的數據顯示,50%的美國人認為種族主義是美國社會的嚴重問題;60%的美國人認為國家需要繼續努力促進種族平等,比一年前高出14個百分點。美國全國廣播公司2016年的民意調查顯示,77%的美國民眾認為存在針對非洲裔的種族歧視問題,其中52%的人認為這種歧視非常嚴重。皮尤研究中心網站2018年2月22日報道,2017年的一項調查顯示,81%的非洲裔認為種族歧視仍是當今社會的嚴重問題,比8年前增長37個百分點。美國全國廣播公司新聞網2018年5月29日報道,一項問卷調查顯示,64%的受訪者認為種族主義是美國的一個重大社會問題,45%的受訪者認為美國的種族關系在惡化,30%的受訪者認為種族問題是當今美國社會分裂的最大根源。
2. Growing racial hate crimes
(二)種族仇恨犯罪增多
The number of racial hate groups keeps growing. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, there were 457 hate groups in the US in 1999, 602 in 2000, and 1,000 by 2010. Among these were the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazis, Skinhead, and anti-Muslim groups. Their members were present at the white-supremacist demonstrations in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017.
種族仇恨團體數量快速增長。美國南方貧困問題法律中心數據顯示,美國國內的仇恨團體數量在1999年為457個,到2000年增長到602個,在2010年前后突破1000個,其中不乏“三K黨、新納粹、光頭黨、反穆斯林團體”等種族仇恨團體。在2017年弗吉尼亞州夏洛茨維爾的白人至上主義者游行中,就出現了這些種族仇恨團體的身影。
The number of racial hate crimes remains high. According to the FBI yearly statistics for hate crimes, an annual average of 6,000 hate crimes were reported from 2010 to 2015. About 60 percent of such crimes involved racial discrimination and 20 percent involved religious discrimination. Latimes.com reported on November 13, 2018 that according to a report released by the FBI, hate crimes in the US rose by more than 17 percent in 2017 – the biggest annual increase since 2001. Among the 7,175 documented hate crimes in 2017, about 60 percent were motivated by racial discrimination and close to 50 percent victims were African Americans.
種族仇恨犯罪數量居高不下。根據美國聯邦調查局仇恨犯罪年度統計報告,2010年至2015年美國仇恨犯罪數量年均在6000起左右。這些仇恨犯罪中,60%左右的案件涉及種族歧視因素,20%左右涉及宗教歧視因素。《洛杉磯時報》網站2018年11月13日報道,聯邦調查局發布的報告顯示,2017年美國的仇恨犯罪創2001年以來的最大年度漲幅,上升超過17%。在7175起仇恨犯罪案件中,約60%的犯罪涉種族歧視,近50%的受害者是非洲裔。
Vicious hate crimes are frequent. In April 2014, Frazier Glenn Cross, a 73-year-old white supremacist, shot dead three people at two Jewish sites in Kansas City. He shouted "Heil Hitler" when arrested. In 2015, 21-year-old white man Dylann Roof shot dead nine people including the pastor inside an African-American church in Charleston, South Carolina. He shouted "You have to go" as he fired at his victims. On October 27, 2018, Robert Bowers, a 46-year-old white male, entered the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with an assault rifle and three handguns, and opened fire for 20 minutes during a Shabbat religious service while shouting anti-Semitic phrases, leaving 11 dead and 6 injured. This was the worst incident of anti-Semitic violence in recent US history.
惡性種族仇恨犯罪案件時有發生。2014年4月,73歲的白人至上主義分子弗雷澤·格倫·克洛斯在堪薩斯城猶太人機構附近槍殺3人。他在被拘捕后大喊“希特勒萬歲”顯示其反猶太人立場。2015年,21歲的白人男子戴倫·魯夫在南卡羅來納州查爾斯頓一個非洲裔美國人的教堂內槍殺了包括牧師在內的9人,并在行兇時大喊:“你們必須滾出去!”2018年10月27日,46歲的白人男子羅伯特·鮑爾斯攜帶步槍、手槍等武器,闖入位于賓夕法尼亞州匹茲堡市的猶太人教堂,高喊反猶太主義極端口號,向正在教堂內禮拜的教徒進行了20分鐘的掃射,致11人死亡、6人受傷。這是美國歷史上猶太人社區遭受的最為致命的攻擊。
3. Increasing societal breakdown
(三)社會撕裂日益嚴重
There are widely disparate views on racial discrimination in US society. A PRRI study in 2016 showed that 64 percent of African-Americans complained about police abuse of power in their communities, while only 17 percent of the white respondents shared this view – the former figure is nearly four times the latter. About 83 percent of white people had confidence in law enforcement by police, while only 48 percent of African-Americans held such views. White people and African-Americans held completely different views toward police killing of African-Americans. About 65 percent of white people and 15 percent of African-Americans thought such incidents were unrelated individual cases, but as many as 81 percent of African-Americans believed that such incidents were frequent in the US.
美國社會對種族歧視問題的認識存在嚴重分歧。美國公共宗教研究所2016年的調查表明,64%的非洲裔認為社區內存在警察施虐問題,僅有17%的白人認同這種觀點,前者是后者的近4倍。有83%的白人對警察執法較有信心,但僅有48%的非洲裔同意這種觀點。白人和非洲裔對警察殺害非洲裔美國人的看法截然不同,大約有65%的白人和15%的非洲裔認為警察殺害非洲裔美國人為孤立事件,但有81%的非洲裔認為該類事件廣泛存在。
Incidents of police killing African-Americans have triggered racial hostility and hate. When the human rights organization "Black Lives Matter" took to the streets in Minneapolis in November 2015 to protest about the police killing of Jamar Clark, an African-American man, several white supremacists opened fire at them and five were injured. In July 2016, incidents of white police killing African-Americans in both Louisiana and Minnesota, which aroused public outcries in more than one place. During the protests in Dallas, Texas, a man shot at police officers, killing five and injuring nine. The shooter later explained that he had killed the white police officers only to protest police brutality against African-Americans.
警察槍殺非洲裔事件引發不同種族之間的對立與仇恨。2015年11月,在明尼阿波利斯市,人權團體“黑人生命也珍貴”因非洲裔男子賈馬爾·克拉克被警方槍殺而組織的抗議游行活動遭到數名白人至上主義者槍擊,造成5人受傷。2016年7月,路易斯安那州、明尼蘇達州先后發生白人警察槍殺非洲裔案件,美國多地爆發抗議游行。在得克薩斯州達拉斯市中心的游行示威活動中,一名槍手開槍襲擊在現場維持秩序的警察,共造成5名警察死亡,9名警察受傷。槍手在與談判人員溝通時表示,他殺死白人警察只是為了抗議警方槍殺非洲裔的暴行。
White supremacist demonstrations trigger violent conflict. In August 2017, white supremacists and rightists were heard yelling the Nazi slogan "Blood and soil!" at a rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. James Alex Fields Jr, a 20-year-old white supremacist, accelerated his car and slammed into the counter-protesters, killing one and injuring 19. According to a report on The Daily Telegraph website from August 13, 2017, the rally and subsequent violence resulted in three dead and dozens injured. One US human rights group said that this white supremacist rally may have been America's "largest hate gathering in decades". Anastasia Crickley, chairperson of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, commented: "We are alarmed by the racist demonstrations, with overtly racist slogans, chants and salutes by white nationalists, neo-Nazis, and the Ku Klux Klan, promoting white supremacy and inciting racial discrimination and hatred."
白人至上主義游行引發暴力沖突。2017年8月,一些白人種族主義者和右翼抗議者聚集在弗吉尼亞州的夏洛茨維爾市游行示威,高喊著“鮮血與土地”的納粹戰斗口號。20歲的白人至上主義者詹姆斯·菲爾茨駕駛汽車高速撞向抗議白人至上主義游行的人群,致使1人死亡、19人受傷。英國《每日電訊報》網站2017年8月13日報道,白人至上主義游行及后續暴力事件共造成3人死亡,數十人受傷。美國民權團體將這次白人至上主義游行描述為“幾十年來最大的仇恨聚會”。針對這一事件,聯合國消除種族歧視委員會主席阿納斯塔西婭·克里科里指出:“我們對白人民族主義者、新納粹和三K黨以公開的種族主義口號和儀式進行的種族主義游行感到極度震驚,這種行為助長了白人至上主義并煽動種族歧視和仇恨。”

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